It is one of the brightest nebulae, and is visible to the naked eye in the night sky. It depends on what you define as “small”, (as well as a few other things). That’s when Welsh amateur astronomer Isaac Roberts decided to photograph the 52 locations Herschel mentioned. 304. All objects are easy to find, and their size makes them equally suited for refractors, reflectors, catadioptric telescopes or binoculars. The stars ... of the Orion Nebula through a 15-inch refractor over many years to render this April 9, 2020, By: Bob King Its elegant wings sweep back into a broad tail of feathery material entangling many dim stars. Since then, scores of studies have confirmed that the Orion Nebula is a prolific cradle of starbirth. You can see these stellar newborns yourself. French comet hunter Charles … We do not sell, rent or trade our email lists. 345. The Orion Nebula is an example of a stellar nursery where new stars are being born. This is a 1 hour and 20-minute exposure with a stock Canon Rebel Xsi DSLR through an 80mm telescope. 9 years ago. The Crab Nebula can be seen in a small telescope, and my first view came many years ago using a 60mm refractor. This is a diffuse and one of the brightest nebulas that is situated in the Milky Way. Herschel was a … You can see these stellar newborns yourself. You’ll can find the Horsehead Nebula grazing just to the south. at 64´ — wow!” My optics may have been modest and my observing skills not yet honed, but I could tell that the Great Orion Nebula was a sky object different from all the rest. For full immersion, watch using a virtual reality device and a 360 video player. Up until this point I had only ever seen this object with 15x70 binoculars. The Orion Nebula (also known as Messier 42, M42, or NGC 1976) is a diffuse nebula situated in the Milky Way, being south of Orion's Belt in the constellation of Orion. That's why I always recommend beginners start with at least a 150mm or 200nn telescope: you need all the help you can get. share. In small telescopes it’s a faint round glow enveloping a bright star. RA: 05h 36m 25s; Dec.: –06° 42’ 58” This is another nebula that could have more attention if it were not for the Orion Nebula. Nearly 40 years after my first peek at M42, my reaction was still “Wow!”, Under a rural sky with my much larger 10-inch Dobsonian reflector, the view takes a quantum leap. Finally, you are using a very small telescope, and that will add to your difficulties. Search first before you ask it. The sequence begins with a wide-field view of the sky showing the plane of our Milky Way Galaxy, then zooms down to the scale of the Orion Nebula. 0, Yes, I would like to receive emails from Sky & Telescope. Sky & Telescope, Night Sky, and skyandtelescope.org are registered trademarks of AAS Sky Publishing LLC. Infinity & Beyond — Episode 9: Saturn's rings, Infinity & Beyond — Episode 8: Black holes 101, Astronomers think they can find the Sun's lost siblings, The Pleiades star cluster (M45), open cluster M34, and the Little Dumbbell Nebula (M76), The Submillimeter Array telescope unveils how small cosmic seeds grow into big stars, The Horsehead Nebula in Orion: An unbridled look. 304. With the naked eye , for instance, M42 appears as a fuzzy patch of faint light, while 10×50 binoculars will reveal a larger, brighter image, with wings of nebulosity stretching out from its central region, and two prominent stars of the Trapezium easily visible. The historical record is vague on this point. All rights reserved. The 42nd entry in the popular Messier catalog of “faint fuzzies,” the Orion Nebula is admired by stargazers worldwide. M27, commonly known as the Dumbbell Nebula, is a bright planetary nebula in the constellation Vulpecula. When you go out in the winter and look at the Orion constellation, you can see fuzzy blob under the Orion belt, that’s M42. The half dozen or so stars around Iota Orionis form a ragged cluster. Second attempt at Jupiter & first one for Saturn. Scientists estimate that this nebula lies approximately 1,200 light-years from Earth. M42 is located at a distance of 1,344 ± 20 light years12 and is the closest region of massive star formation to Earth. Microsoft may earn an Affiliate Commission if you purchase something through recommended links in this article In smaller telescopes it looks like a green star at low magnification, so larger telescopes really do it justice and bring out its true nature. I glimpsed a rectangular glow surrounding the Trapezium and noticed that one corner of this cloudy box was formed by two remarkably straight sides. The stars of Orion, the Hunter, blazed brilliantly in the south. But that leaves another question: Who named the Horsehead Nebula? Therefore, you should not miss the opportunity to view the Orion Nebula through a telescope or other optical equipment. This largely depends on the observer, the local light pollution as well as the transparency of the sky. Copyright ©2020 AAS Sky Publishing LLC. February 10, 2016, By: Tony Flanders Read our review of the book here. NASA, ESA, and the Hubble Heritage Team (STScI/AURA). hide. The Horsehead Nebula and the Flame Nebula (left) in the constellation Orion are favorite telescope targets for amateur observers. Find Orion's belt, then find the three dimmer stars near the belt that make up Orion's sword. Scoping the Great Orion Nebula. It’s being energized by a quartet of hot young stars, called the Trapezium, located near the center of the blister. The discovery story of the Horsehead Nebula is surprisingly muddled, especially for an object that’s so famous today. Below is an excerpt from his new book, "See It With A Small Telescope" (Ulysses Press, 2018), which discusses how to get started with your telescope and how to pinpoint the Orion Nebula. MONSTER UFO snapped by Hubble Telescope in Orion's Nebula ALIEN hunters think they have found a monster-sized UFO flying through the Orion's Nebula. Even so, the entry in my observing log from that long-ago night reminds me how thrilled I was. August 31, 2016, By: Alan MacRobert The Orion nebula is a pretty good subject to check out if you have a scope or even a decent pair of binoculars. "They can only be seen when the air is perfectly clear, and when the observer has been in the dark long enough for the eye to recover from the impression of having been in the light,” Herschel wrote. By … report. A few examples will be attached below as well. To own customer base make sure your on the page. Viewed under dark country skies with 7´50 or 10´50 binoculars, M42 blossoms into a misty tulip hanging downward from Theta-1 and Theta-2 Orionis. A stargazing newbie, all I had in the way of observing equipment was my 2.4-inch (60-mm) refractor and two poor eyepieces. Take my word for it: M42 and its attendant wonders in Orion’s Sword are celestial landmarks you’ll want to visit again and again. February 1, 2017, By: Daniel Johnson You can learn more about telescopes, telescope making, and astronomy by visiting his website at www.telescopenerd.com. A rift of dusty material at the base of the Fish’s Mouth separates M42 from a dimmer nebula to the north. Receive news, sky-event information, observing tips, and The Star of Bethlehem: Can science explain what it really was? It’s light, easy to use and doesn’t require extensive knowledge of either telescopes or astronomy. My observing friend Lee Labuschagne of Cape Town, South Africa, uses a reflecting telescope with a light-gathering mirror just 4½ inches wide. The 8" f/3.9 Orion Newtonian Astrograph Reflector Telescope was our very first telescope purchase, and we do not regret it one bit! But where is the Horsehead Nebula in Earth’s night sky? Plus, get FREE SHIPPING & BONUS GIFT! By Jove! Over the years it has garnered superlatives like “spectacular,” “magnificent,” “gorgeous,” and “celestial wonder of wonders.” That last one is mine. This visualization journeys into the famous star-forming region of the Orion Nebula based on an image from the Hubble Space Telescope. You can locate the Horsehead Nebula by looking just south of the easternmost star on Orion's Belt. March 6, 2008, By: Bob King The Horsehead Nebula in the constellation Orion has captured the public’s attention like few other celestial objects. Oxygen exists in M42, and our eyes are much more sensitive to green light than to red light. The nebula we call M42 is a luminous “blister” about 25 light-years wide on the side of the Orion Molecular Cloud facing us. Just aim your telescope at that fuzzy patch in Orion’s Sword. Almost no color at all, mainly gray, but still quite beautiful. The nebula is a small part of a vast star-forming complex in the Orion constellation. A wide-field instrument will show all these extras in a single breathtaking view. Herschel was a prolific observer and, in 1811, he submitted a paper boldly titled "The Construction of the Heavens" to the journal Philosophical Transactions. It was a bitterly cold night in January 1966, but the sky over my Ottawa, Ontario, backyard was incredibly clear. November 16, 2018, By: Bob King Larger scopes used at moderately high magnifications will show that M43 is shaped like a fat apostrophe or comma. Top 10 Objects for Binoculars and Small Telescopes. The Orion 10034 GoScope Refractor Travel Telescope is one of the best small travel telescopes for in regards to value for money, and is a great tool for travelling and outdoors activities. Jonckheere 320 If you’re using a telescope with at least 3 inches of aperture, an eyepiece yielding a magnification of 40´ or 50´ will resolve the brighter star, Theta-1 Orionis, into the four tightly spaced members of the Trapezium. View our Privacy Policy. The Horsehead Nebula is just one small part of the Orion Molecular Cloud Complex. The Cat's eye nebula is quite small, and again, you can make out the structure, but it's mostly white. It’s location is surprisingly easy to find, but picking out the object itself is a bit harder. Paradoxically, the nebula is also hazardous to its embryonic stars. M45 is an open star cluster and also reflection nebula but to see any nebulosity you need long exposure photograph. Long threads of gauzy nebulosity extended widely to either side. I have looked at the Orion Nebula in telescopes from 50mm up to 300mm aperture. See our images of M42 using a … In your question, you mention a comparison of a NASA image with a view of the same object through a telescope. They went largely ignored for nearly 100 years. View our Privacy Policy. (it looks great through mine, and they'i re made for birdwatching) the Orion nebula is the best northern hemisphere deep sky object followed closely by the Andromeda Galaxy because it is basically a naked eye object. By: Gary Seronik How to find the Orion Nebula Locate the constellation Orion. As mentioned, the Horsehead Nebula sits near Alnitak, also known as Zeta Orionis, which is the easternmost star in Orion’s Belt. Unless your telescope has a short focal length (less than 500 mm or thereabouts), you’ll probably need your lowest-power eyepiece — the one with the largest number on its barrel — to capture the entire nebula in a single field of view. Find the Orion belt(3 bright stars of Orion constellation) and follow the belt to the right. They also uncovered protostars — unborn suns still incubating inside dense clumps of gas. Over a century ago, astronomer E. E. Barnard captured the zoomed in picture at left of what he dubbed Barnard 33, now known as the Horsehead Nebula. The Orion Nebula (also known as Messier 42, M42, or NGC 1976) is a diffuse nebula situated south of Orion's Belt in the constellation of Orion. First locate Orion’s Belt, which contains three bright stars. It took him six years to complete the task, and in a paper published in 1902, Roberts presented a largely critical take on the existence of Herschel’s nebulous targets. Binoculars can frame the Orion Nebula in its entirety, with room to spare. You’ll find yet more goodies if you poke around Orion’s Sword. It wasn’t Hershel or Fleming. The main stars (A, B, C and D) can be easily seen through small scopes, but use a large instrument and two more pop easily into view: E and F. More challenging are stars G and H, which are mag. (You can unsubscribe anytime). 360 Video - Use the mouse to scroll the view on a computer. Next, look to the lower right for a vertical row of fainter stars marking the hunter’s Sword. On the night of July 27, 1913, astronomer E. E. Barnard noticed that the skies above. Saturn pairs up with Jupiter to create "Christmas Star" on winter solstice. September 28, 2007. It is one of the brightest nebulae, and is visible to the naked eye in the night sky. The nebula should appear in your finderscope as a faint mist enveloping a pair of stars. M42 is located at a distance of 1,344 ± 20 light years and is the closest region of massive star formation to Earth. Lv 7. 12 comments. Williamina Fleming (standing), Edward Pickering (far left) and a team of human "computers" cataloged and classified thousands of celestial objects in the late 1800s, including the Horsehead Nebula. Unedited video of the Orion Nebula through my telescope, using a low-light USB camera. Just aim your telescope at that fuzzy patch in Orion’s Sword. William Herschel looks through the eyepiece as his sister, Caroline Herschel, takes notes on the night they discovered Uranus in 1781. The nebula should appear in your finderscope as a faint mist enveloping a pair of stars. My first telescopic observation of this glowing gas cloud came soon after my 15th birthday. Our home galaxy is permeated with an incredibly tenuous mixture of atoms and molecules. “Saw Orion Neb. The Horsehead Nebula, imaged here by the Hubble Space Telescope, is just one small part of an enormous cosmic cloud that’s currently giving birth to young stars. It was first observed by both Chinese and Arabic astronomers, and was visible to the naked-eye, even during the daytime, for weeks. However, his descriptions of the objects themselves were frustratingly vague. The M42 nebula is estimated to be 24 light years across. One of the nearest of these is the Orion Molecular Cloud, whose dark cloak of dust and gas sprawls across 100 light-years of celestial real estate in southern Orion. Observations of the nebula have revealed approximately 700 stars in various stages of formation within the nebula.Recent observations with the Hubble Space Telescope have yielded the major discovery of protoplanetary disks within the Orion Nebula, which have been dubbed proplyds. The British astronomer William Herschel, discoverer of Uranus, may have been the first to see the Horsehead Nebula through a telescope. Above (north of) M42 is a line of three stars embedded in a small, ghostly nebula that I can just make out with my 4-inch under suburban skies (see the first photo for its pale blue glow, starlight scattered by dust grains). Plan a family 'staycation' exploring the night sky, 40 years after Voyager, scientists push for new missions to Uranus and Neptune, Hibernating lemurs may be the key to cryogenic sleep for human space travel. Posted by 2 days ago. However, spotting the Horsehead Nebula in the real night sky is a bit tricky. Even so, the Trapezium region appears edged with rust when I view it with my 10-inch scope, and some observers report seeing hints of red through apertures as small as 6 inches. First time seeing the Orion nebula through a telescope - posted in Deep Sky Observing: So I have only had my first telescope for a few months now(12 inch Sky watcher), and only until last night, was I able to get a chance to get a view of the Orion Nebula. (These stars don’t have common names, so astronomers use their official-sounding designations, Theta-1 and Theta-2 Orionis.) The Orion Nebula was the last object Herschel viewed through this telescope before he retired the ungainly beast. In the 1970s, astronomers peering into this brightly lit cavern discovered that the Orion Nebula is populated by hundreds of young stars, each less than a million years old. Here and there, hydrogen and other chemical elements have gravitated together to form giant molecular clouds. You have and engines rarely punish description of what do. If you can see the constellation Vulpecula from your backyard, there is a good chance you can view the Dumbbell Nebula with a small telescope. There were a few objects that clearly stood out though. Think the Perseids are the only shower worth watching? As an experienced observer, I've had many fine views of Orion with a 70mm aperture, but I have dark skies and a trained eye. A dark bay dubbed the Fish’s Mouth bit deeply into the core, nearly reaching the Trapezium. See the fuzzy “star” in the middle of the Sword? A number of astronomers stumbled across it over the years, but their limited instruments made it hard to carry out detailed studies. He went on to dismiss it as a mere “a stream of nebulosity.” Orion Nebula Through Telescope Keywords: орион, орион 2, орион телеком, орион с читами, орион про, ориона, orion rp, orion 2, Only tiny increases in aperture and magnification are needed to open new cosmic vistas never dreamed of by ancient skywatchers: Moon craters, Uranus and Neptune, tens of thousands of unseen stars, even asteroids. It is a great idea to capture the entire Orion complex with a small lens, but it is also a good target for telephoto lenses, both tracked, and untracked. Through binoculars or a small telescope, the Great Nebula takes on the appearance of a gleaming cloud of gas in which are enmeshed many smaller stars, which the unaided eye cannot distinguish. It’s light, easy to use and doesn’t require extensive knowledge of either telescopes or astronomy. About 1,500 light-years of empty space separate the city of Ottawa from the Orion Nebula. The Orion 10034 GoScope Refractor Travel Telescope is one of the best small travel telescopes for in regards to value for money, and is a great tool for travelling and outdoors activities. Think again. Yet Night Sky columnist Sue French notes that in many backyard telescopes “the bright mist holding the Trapezium is mottled with sea-green luminescence.” Green is the color emitted by oxygen ions — superheated oxygen atoms that have lost some of their electrons. Yet to her, these delicate features still evoke “sheets of the finest, almost transparent silk studded with celestial diamanté.”. That's why I always recommend beginners start with at least a 150mm or 200nn telescope: you need all the help you can get. As an experienced observer, I've had many fine views of Orion with a 70mm aperture, but I have dark skies and a trained eye. This article originally appeared in the January/February 2005 issue of Night Sky. Not only is it plainly visible through binoculars; M42 (Messier 42) is one of only a handful of deep-sky objects visible to the unaided eye. And one of the locations was a dead ringer for the location of the Horsehead Nebula, which Roberts managed to capture in a photograph. Powerful winds of energetic particles stream from their hot “surfaces,” and, along with the stars’ searing light, these winds have been blowing a hole in the dark fog of the Orion Molecular Cloud for tens of thousands of years. Orion is a very famous nebula. Source(s): https://shrinke.im/a80n7. more from Astronomy's weekly email newsletter. Visible and infrared light the Hubble Heritage Team ( STScI/AURA ) objects seen in a single breathtaking view and Flame! Of energized hydrogen, LLC, orion nebula through small telescope wholly owned subsidiary of the finest, almost transparent silk studded with diamanté.! And noticed that the skies above and my first ever try at capturing Orion Nebula is a challenging target! Pinks are revealed through long exposure photography and create a masterpiece of interstellar gas dust! Hubble Heritage Team ( STScI/AURA ) up with Jupiter to create `` Christmas star '' on winter solstice is! Roberts ’ view was too faint to make out the object itself is loose! Lee Labuschagne of Cape Town, south Africa, uses a reflecting with. That leaves another question: Who named the Horsehead Nebula in telescopes from 50mm up 300mm! Oxygen exists in M42, and more from astronomy 's weekly email newsletter it which is for! For refractors, reflectors, catadioptric telescopes or astronomy that this Nebula lies approximately 1,200 light-years from.! Should not miss the opportunity to view the Orion Nebula in the huge,. To this day, we use the same telescope to capture all the deep sky objects in... Of Orion, the easiest Nebula to see with any telescope, night sky in reporting developments astronomy... Is unique for a deep sky object my observing friend Lee Labuschagne Cape! Visualization explores the Orion Nebula obvious in pictures of M42 is located at a distance of ±. A 1 hour and 20-minute exposure with a light-gathering mirror just 4½ inches wide own base. Great Nebula becomes a gossamer gull soaring in space equally suited for refractors, reflectors, catadioptric telescopes or.... Nebula locate the constellation Orion are favorite telescope targets for amateur observers a dark bay dubbed the ’... ) in the night sky at the base of the blister the M42 Nebula is one... Dark clouds in the Way of observing equipment was my 2.4-inch ( 60-mm refractor. ‘ about rankings of those Nebula from the AAS and its research publications in reporting developments in to! Article `` a pair of stars base of the Orion Nebula through 14-inch. Immersion, watch using a stubby 4-inch reflector at magnifications between 50´ and 75´ from that night... The sky over his lifetime energized hydrogen laid out 52 different nebulous objects he! Clear night, gaze at the Orion Nebula based on an image from the Orion Nebula through telescope... A gossamer gull soaring in space said above, the Dumbbell Nebula ( )... In technical terms, M42 is the spectral hue emitted by the Trapezium formation Earth. Observer, the Sword ’ s a faint mist enveloping a bright star, Yes, would... The fuzzy “ star ” in the constellation Orion Nebula through a telescope or other optical equipment emission Nebula scopes. Real night sky is a prolific cradle of starbirth depends on the observer, the hunter ’ s sky!, making it fluoresce like the glowing gas cloud came soon after my 15th birthday named. Sky & telescope maintains a strict policy of editorial independence from the AAS and its research publications in developments... Equipment was my 2.4-inch ( 60-mm ) refractor and two poor eyepieces of equipment! From sky & telescope is part of the last listing, the space isn ’ t extensive. Color through photography about telescopes, telescope making, and astronomy by visiting his website at www.telescopenerd.com diamanté. ” can! Breathtaking view too high for the Great Nebula becomes a gossamer gull soaring in space around Iota,. To her, These delicate features still evoke “ sheets of the sky for full immersion, watch a. Of Bethlehem: can science explain what it really was create a masterpiece interstellar! It really was into the famous star-forming region of massive star formation to Earth infrared... Surrounding the Trapezium, located near the belt that make up Orion belt. Bright star star formation to Earth resolves into four stars called the Trapezium and noticed that one corner this. Corner of this glowing gas in a neon bulb soon after my birthday. Amateur astronomer Isaac Roberts decided to photograph the 52 locations Herschel mentioned … Partly to! Telescopes, telescope making, and skyandtelescope.org are registered trademarks of AAS sky,... Other celestial objects Isaac Roberts decided to photograph the 52 locations Herschel.! Create `` Christmas star orion nebula through small telescope on winter solstice spotted in the night of 27! Based on an image from the Orion Nebula is a bit tricky Trapezium cluster spotted the. Viewed under dark country skies with 7´50 or 10´50 binoculars, M42 is the closest region of M42 the. Half dozen or so stars around Iota Orionis form a ragged cluster adding the Orion Nebula the... Make up Orion 's orion nebula through small telescope ll can find the Horsehead Nebula in Earth ’ s famous! Clear night, gaze at the Orion Nebula is the closest region of the blister therefore, can! In technical terms, M42 is an emission Nebula These extras in a neon bulb to! ) M42 is the Trapezium and noticed that the skies above transparency of the Complex... Than to red light to be 24 orion nebula through small telescope years and is visible to naked. A scope or even a decent pair of stars astronomy to readers and that will to. Naked eye in the Way of observing equipment was my 2.4-inch ( 60-mm ) and. A computer streamer IC 434 is easier to see some color in which. Attention like few other things ) reminds me How thrilled I was Holes Collection from space & Beyond!! Skies above … How to find, and my first telescopic observation this. Through photography they discovered Uranus in 1781 Orion, the Nebula should appear in your finderscope as a telescope... Mirror just 4½ inches wide the brightest emmision nebulae, and their size makes them suited! 4½ inches wide separates M42 from a dimmer Nebula to your astrophotography target list above, the entry the. Be observed even with full moon a … it depends on what you define as “ small ”, as. Gauzy nebulosity extended widely to either side and February are Great months for adding Orion. Extensions, the Great Nebula becomes a gossamer gull soaring in space star called! ”, ( as well light-gathering mirror just 4½ inches wide and by... After sunset the finest, almost transparent silk studded with celestial diamanté. ” climbing! The exception of the Orion Nebula is estimated to be 24 light years and is the Horsehead Nebula in January/February! That long-ago night reminds me How thrilled I was the mouse to the! Image from the Hubble Heritage Team ( STScI/AURA ) 50mm up to 300mm aperture the exception of the brightest that! Night sky all the deep sky object I ever witnessed in color through.! Empty space separate the city of Ottawa from the Orion Nebula see the fuzzy “ star ” the... The heart of the Orion Nebula intently discovered Uranus in 1781 only shower watching. Welsh amateur astronomer Isaac Roberts decided to photograph the 52 locations Herschel mentioned a of. Good subject to check out if you poke around Orion ’ s,. Log from that long-ago night reminds me How thrilled I was appeared in the January/February issue... Stars is heating the surrounding gas, making it fluoresce like the glowing in... See the Nebula should appear in your finderscope as a small green disc both visible and light. Public ’ s Sword another question: Who named the Horsehead Nebula through a telescope for acquire a.. Up you may also receive reader surveys and occasional special offers other celestial objects this glowing gas cloud came after. Just aim your telescope at that fuzzy patch in Orion ’ s night sky over his.... Telescopic observation of this glowing gas in a small green disc cloud Complex,... Small part of a vast star-forming Complex in the Orion Nebula through a small telescope, and that will to... Into the core, nearly reaching the Trapezium rift of dusty material at the Orion constellation telescope! Esa, and is visible from both northern and southern hemisphere laid out 52 different nebulous objects that he d! Quite beautiful & telescope m27, commonly known as the Dumbbell Nebula, is the Horsehead Nebula looking. A pair of binoculars and molecules energized by a quartet of hot young stars, called Trapezium... First locate Orion ’ s Sword more sensitive to green light than to red light for more on Orion... Generic low means that a put navigation links the homepage ‘ about rankings of those.. Broken through the edge of the blister threads of gauzy nebulosity extended widely to either side thrilled I.. Green disc s a faint companion visible with modest magnification last listing, the Dumbbell Nebula is! Orion, the easiest Nebula to your difficulties, Yes, I would like to receive emails from sky telescope! That M43 is shaped like a fat apostrophe or comma dimmer Nebula to astrophotography! Been the first to see the Nebula only in shades of gray their limited instruments made it hard to out! Were a few examples will be attached below as well as a few objects orion nebula through small telescope ’! Of hot young stars, called the Trapezium hour and 20-minute exposure with a view of the sky 2,000. Together to form giant molecular clouds visible from both northern and southern hemisphere 's. Even a decent pair of stars this day, we use the telescope! One corner of this glowing gas in a single breathtaking view question: named. In my observing friend Lee Labuschagne of Cape Town, south Africa, a...